A HIAS Representative Office is officially registered in Ukraine in August.

HIAS celebrates its 120th anniversary. It establishes LOREO (Local Russian Emigré Organizations) to partner with dozens of grassroots Russian-speaking émigré organizations that have formed in the U.S. since the early 1990s. HIAS opens offices in Nairobi, Kenya, in response to the increasingly urgent needs of refugees and asylum seekers in East Africa, and in Buenos Aires, to help provide the Jewish community in Argentina with information on migration options.


A missile accidentally fired by the Ukrainian air force shoots down a Russian passenger airliner carrying former Soviet citizens of Israel en route to visit Russia.

To mark the 25th anniversary of a symposium on Jewish culture that was prevented by the authorities in 1976, former refuseniks return to Moscow to take part in a conference called “Jews of Silence – Jews of Triumph” and to establish a new international organization of Russian Jews, the World Congress of Russian Jewry.


On September 11, terrorists hijack airplanes and fly them into the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. Almost 3,000 people die and the World Trade Center’s twin towers are destroyed.


  • Jewish emigrants from the FSU: 35,590
  • Soviet Jewish immigrants to US: 4,088
  • Soviet Jewish immigrants to Israel: 31,513

Looking Back

Some 40 Reform (Progressive) congregations now exist in the former Soviet Union, nearly half of which are in Ukraine. The Conservative movement has six Sunday schools and a day school in Chernivtsy with an enrollment of 260 students, but no affiliated congregations. Chabad Lubavitch has 198 affiliated congregations.

There also are an estimated 70 “messianic Jewish” congregations in Ukraine and many Christian missionary groups, including evangelicals, Mormons and Roman Catholics, working in Russia and Ukraine despite laws supported by the Russian Orthodox Church that restrict their activities.